For Further Study on Hell, Judgment, Punishment…

Post Published on April 8, 2011.
Last Updated on April 24, 2016 by davemackey.

UPDATE: I’ve started a new site dedication to the discussion/study of hell/justice/love/etc. I’ll be porting the material on this site to it and extending the materials already posted here. Take a look at

My review of Rob Bell’s book Love Wins has been by far my most popular post. I continue to do further studies on the topic of hell, judgment, punishment, etc. and wanted to add these resources to the Bell post, but realized it was getting far too long…so I’ve split off his additional post to provide resources for further study on this topic. I expect it to grow with time…

I’ve placed an * by articles I have read, all other articles are ones I intend/hope to read. The initial collection of articles come from those available via the Biblical Studies Foundation’s NET Bible Study Environment. The articles are readable if you have a premium subscription to Galaxie’s Theological Journal’s library.

[It is worth noting that this discussion was quite prominent in the 1800’s amongst all sectors of the church, as is evident from the articles dates as demonstrated below. It went into hiatus during the controversy between modernism and fundamentalism, but now appears to be rising to the surface again. It would be a shame to ignore the massive amounts of research done by previous generations in the discussion of this topic.]

  • *Scharen, Hans. “Part I: Gehenna in the Synoptics.” Bibliothecra Sacra (BSAC) 149:595. July 1992. Notes: Examines the O.T. and intertestamental conception of hell – especially as relates to Gehenna and then begins a study of the synoptics on the issue. Emphasis is orthodox and traditional.
  • *Larsen, David L. “Heaven and Hell in the Preaching of the Gospel: A Survey.” Trinity Journal (TRINJ) 22:2. Fall 2001. Notes: While at times frustrating for its brevity on various individuals, it offers significant insights into historical conceptions of heaven and hell that can serve as an able jumping-off point for further research.
  • Holdsworth, Christopher B. “The Eschatology of Jonathan Edwards.” Reformation and Revival (RAR) 05:3. Summer 1996.
  • Davidson, Bruce W. “Reasonable Damnation: How Jonathan Edwards Argued for the Rationality of Hell.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS) 38:1. March 1995.
  • Barrows, E.P. “The Scriptural Doctrine of a Future State.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 015:59. July 1858.
  • Robbins, John W. “Justification and Judgment.” Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society (JOTGES) 15:1. Spring 2002.
  • Hulbert, C.B. “An Inquiry as to the Nature and Reality of Hell Fire.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 075:298. April 1918.
  • Packer, James I. “The Way of Salvation Part III: The Problems of Universalism.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 130:517. Jan. 1973.
  • Crockett, William V. “Wrath that Endures Forever.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS) 34:2. June 1991.
  • Miles, James B. “Christ Preaching to the Spirits in Prison.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 019:73. January 1862.
  • Pettegrew, Larry D. “A Kinder, Gentler Theology of Hell?” Masters Seminary Journal (MSJ) 09:2. Fall 1998.
  • Erickson, Millard. “Is There Opportunity for Salvation After Death?” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 152:606. April 1995.
  • Erickson, Millard. “Is Hell Forever?” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 152:607. July 1995.
  • Scofield, C.I. “The Compassion of Christ.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 107:426. April 1950.
  • Lewis, A. William. “God’s Love is Saving the World.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 086:343. July 1929.
  • Cook, R.R. “Is Universalism an Implication of the Notion of Post-Mortem Evangelism?” Tyndal Bulletin (TYNBUL) 45:2. NA 1994.
  • Gray, Tony. “Post-mortem Evangelism: A Response to R.R. Cook.” Tyndale Bulletin (TYNBUL) 46:1. NA 1995.
  • Erickson, Millard. “Principles, Permanence, and Future Divine Judgment: A Case Study in Theological Method.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS) 28:3. September 1985.
  • Mantey, J.R. “Is Death the Only Punishment for Unbelievers?” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 112:448. October 1955.
  • Fairfield, Martin.”Resurrection and Final Judgment.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 049:193. January 1892.
  • Muenscher, Joseph. “On the Descent of Christ into Hell.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 016:62. April 1859.
  • Beougher, Timothy K. “Are All Doomed to be Saved? The Rise of Modern Universalism.” Southern Baptist Journal of Theology (SBJT) 02:2. Summer 1998.
  • Potwin, L.S. Christ’s Descent into Hades. Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 05:199. July 1893.
  • Hodges, Zane C. “What Do We Mean by Propitiation? Does It Only Count If We Accept It?” Journal of the Grace Evangelical Theological Society (JOTGES) 19:36. Spring 2006.
  • Love, William De Loss. “Hades and Gehenna.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 044:186. October 1887.
  • Kreider, Glenn R. “Sinners in the Hands of a Gracious God.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 163:651. July 2006.
  • Grounds, Vernon C. “The Final State of the Wicked.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS) 24:3. September 1981.
  • Arp, William E. “Tormented or Terminated?” Journal of Ministry and Theology (JMAT) 05:2. Fall 2001.
  • Grudem, Wayne. “He Did Not Descend into Hell: A Plea for Following Scripture Instead of the Apostles’ Creed.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS) 34:1. March 1991.
  • Scaer, David P. “He Did Descend to Hell: In Defense of the Apostles’ Creed.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS) 35:1. March 1992.
  • Lewis, Jack P. “‘The Gates of Hell Shall Not Prevail Against It’ (Matt. 16:18): A Study of the History of Interpretation.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS) 38:3. September 1995.
  • Mayhue, Richard L. “Hell: Never, Forever, or Just for Awhile?” Masters Seminary Journal (TMSJ) 09:2. Fall 1998.
  • Helm, Paul. “Universalism and the Threat of Hell.” Trinity Journal (TRINJ) 04:1. Spring 1983.
  • Magoun, G.F. “Eternity as Non-Duration: Maurice, in American Theology.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 041:163. July 1884.
  • Cheever, George B. “The Arrangements in the Constitution of the Mind, for a Future Judgment and Retribution.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 008:31. July 1851.
  • Anonymous. “Richard Baxter‘s ‘End of Controversy.'” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 012:46. April 1855.
  • Quarles, Charles L. The ᾿Απο of 2 Thessalonians 1:9 and the Nature of Eternal Punishment. Westminster Theological Journal (WTJ) 59:2. Fall 1997.
  • Johnson Jr., S. Lewis. “‘God Gave Them Up’: A Study in Divine Retribution.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 129:514. April 1972.
  • Cowles, Henry. “Future Punishment of the Wicked as Revealed in the Old Testament.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 035:139. July 1878.
  • Wells, David F. “The Debate Over the Atonement in 19th-Century America Part 3: The Collision of Views on the Atonement.” Bibliotheca Sacra (BSAC) 144:576. October 1987.

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